# Universes are Particles (Paperback)

### Description

Elementary particles are very small and of "fixed" size. Universes (at least the one we know) are very large and expand from the very small. In this book we present evidence for a particle interpretation of universes. They originate from a size comparable to elementary particles and expand, as we show, to enormous size in a manner that approximates the form of the vacuum polarization of an elementary particle such as an electron.

The vacuum polarization of a charged particle was calculated by this author to great approximation to give an exact value (as experimentally known to 14 places) for the Fine Structure Constant α. The vacuum polarization, when transformed to a time dependent form, corresponds to a major part of the scale factor a(t) for an expanding universe as determined by Hubble Parameter measurements. This remarkable similarity combined with a factor embodying an essential singularity at the origin of the universe, which has also been conjectured for QED vacuum polarization, provides an excellent phenomenological description of a universe. In this view a universe is generated by fermion-antifermion annihilation in a higher space such as we see in Octonion Cosmology. The scale factor marks this point with an essential singularity. The Big Bang then starts evolution with the same form as vacuum polarization.

The success of the author's approach to vacuum polarization is reflected in its ability to also approximately calculate the coupling constants for the ElectroWeak and Strong Interactions.

Some of the high points described in the book are:

1. Megaverses are also Particles

2. Shape of Vacuum Polarization = Shape of Universe Expansion

3. QED Fine Structure Constant Calculated Exactly

4. A Universe Fine Structure Constant Determined

5. Standard Model Coupling Constants Calculated

6. Phenomenological Scale Factor & Hubble Parameter at t = 0

7. A 33 % "BIG DIP" in Universe Expansion at the Transition to Matter-Dominated

8. The Origin of a Universe at an Essential Singularity

9. Universes Begin with the Same Initial Conditions

10. Life Prospects are Similar in All Universes at All Times

The calculation of the vacuum polarization and α, which are strictly local quantum field theory calculations, shows that α is not time dependent, and is independent of location. Thus in our universe, and any other universes, α is the same. Universe evolution is based on an unchanging α. Chemistry and Biology are the "same" everywhere. The success of the calculations has profound consequences.